Management Information Systems (MIS) focuses on the use of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) in managing organisations. In today’s highly competitive and global economy, all organisations need to use ICT to efficiently manage their operations, help managers make better and faster decisions to achieve competitive advantage, and facilitate seamless communications with employees, customers, partners, and other stakeholders. Competencies in such areas as big data analytics, cloud computing, Internet of Things and augmented reality have become essential to survival in the rapidly changing business environment.
Organisations are under intense pressure to remain competitive, decrease costs and increase productivity by improving business processes. Business process management (BPM) helps managers improve organisational performance by analyzing, designing, implementing, monitoring, controlling and modifying operational business processes. BPM may include such continuous process improvement methodologies as Lean, Total Quality Management and Six Sigma to enhance organisational efficiency and profitability.